使用SSL验证和Nginx代理搭建生产环境的Docker仓库
Table of Contents

使用私有仓库有许多优点:
  节省网络带宽,针对于每个镜像不用每个人都去中央仓库上面去下载,只需要从私有仓库中下载即可;提供镜像资源利用,针对于公司内部使用的镜像,推送到本地的私有仓库中,以供公司内部相关人员使用。
+ 我的环境:CentOS Linux release 7.5.1804 (Core)
+ Docker版本:Version: 1.13.1,API version: 1.26,Go version: go1.9.4

在下载Linux发行版的时候需要下载较新的版本,Docker所支持的Linux kernel版本过低会出现问题。

安装Docker

CentOS中更新源后安装docker 详见官网
安装完成Docker环境之后不要去关闭CentOS的防火墙和Selinux,因为Docker的安全机制是基于iptables的,关闭selinux会是的Docker的安装出错。

docker: Error response from daemon: failed to create endpoint registry on network bridge: iptables failed: iptables --wait -t nat -A DOCKER -p tcp -d 0/0 --dport 5000 -j DNAT --to-destination 172.17.0.2:5000 ! -i docker0: iptables: No chain/target/match by that name.(exit status 1).

安装Docker Registry

目前Docker Registry已经升级到了v2,最新版的Docker已不再支持v1。Registry v2使用Go语言编写,在性能和安全性上做了很多优化,重新设计了镜像的存储格式。

官网安装 registry

https://docs.docker.com/registry/

使用Docker-compose安装

Docker-compose是一个非常有用的Docker运行,管理的工具。你可以通过定义compose文件,使用简单的一条命令同时起多个Docker Container运行不同的服务。Docker-compose对于开发,测试,环境保存以及CI都提供了非常大的便利。
  Docker-compose是用Python开发的一个工具,所以可以用pip直接安装。

$ pip install docker-compose

需要注意的是,docker-compose可能对requests module的版本有限制,而本机上可能安装了更高版本的requests模块,造成运行时报错。可以使用pip-conflict-checker检查版本冲突,卸载不合适的版本,重新安装一个合适的版本。

$ pip install pip-conflict-checker
$ pip conflictchecker
$ pip uninstall requests
$ pip install requests==2.7.0

实际使用操作中使用pip安装的docker-compose可能在执行时还会报代码有bug。

推荐直接从github中下载稳定的release版本安装

$ curl -L https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.5.2/ \
docker-compose-`uname -s`-`uname -m` > /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
$ chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose
$ ln -s /usr/local/bin/docker-compose /usr/bin/docker-compose

安装htpasswd

因为需要使用nginx提供安全验证的功能,需要一个地方放置用户名和密码对。
  使用由httpd-tools提供的htpasswd工具生成用户名密码对。

$ yum install httpd-tools

运行Registry Container并使用Nginx做代理

运行nginx和registry容器

创建一个工作目录,例如/registry/programs/docker,并在该目录下创建docker-compose.yml文件,将以下docker-compose.yml内容复制粘贴到你的docker-compose.yml文件中。

内容大致意思为:基于“nginx:1.9” image运行nginx容器,暴露容器443端口到host 443端口。并挂载当前目录下的nginx/目录为容器的/etc/nginx/config.d目录。 nginx link到registry容器。基于registry:2 image创建registry容器,将容器5000端口暴露到host 5000端口,使用环境变量指明使用/data为根目录,并将当前目录下data/文件夹挂载到docker容器的/data目录。

$ mkdir /registry/programs/docker -p
$ cd /registry/programs/docker
$ mkdir data && mkdir nginx 
$ cat /registry/programs/docker/docker-compose.yml
nginx:  
  image: "nginx:1.9"  
  ports:  
    - 443:443  
  links:  
    - registry:registry  
  volumes:  
    - ./nginx/:/etc/nginx/conf.d  
registry:  
  image: registry:2  
  ports:  
    - 127.0.0.1:5000:5000  
  environment:  
    REGISTRY_STORAGE_FILESYSTEM_ROOTDIRECTORY: /data  
  volumes:

    - ./data:/data

配置nginx

在nginx目录中创建registry.conf文件配置nginx。配置nginx与registry的关系,转发端口,以及其他nginx的配置选项。复制,粘贴如下内容到你的registry.conf文件中。

 $ cat /registry/programs/docker/nginx/registry.conf
upstream docker-registry {  
  server registry:5000;  
}

server {  
  listen 443;  
  server_name ec2-18-221-193-240.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com;

  # SSL  
  # ssl on;  
  # ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/conf.d/domain.crt;  
  # ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/conf.d/domain.key;

  # disable any limits to avoid HTTP 413 for large image uploads  
  client_max_body_size 0;

  # required to avoid HTTP 411: see Issue #1486 (https://github.com/docker/docker/issues/1486)  
  chunked_transfer_encoding on;

  location /v2/ {  
    # Do not allow connections from docker 1.5 and earlier  
    # docker pre-1.6.0 did not properly set the user agent on ping, catch "Go *" user agents  
    if ($http_user_agent ~ "^(docker\/1\.(3|4|5(?!\.[0-9]-dev))|Go ).*$" ) {  
      return 404;  
    }

    # To add basic authentication to v2 use auth_basic setting plus add_header  
    # auth_basic "registry.localhost";  
    # auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/conf.d/registry.password;  
    # add_header 'Docker-Distribution-Api-Version' 'registry/2.0' always;

    proxy_pass                          http://docker-registry;  
    proxy_set_header  Host              $http_host;   # required for docker client's sake  
    proxy_set_header  X-Real-IP         $remote_addr; # pass on real client's IP  
    proxy_set_header  X-Forwarded-For   $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;  
    proxy_set_header  X-Forwarded-Proto $scheme;  
    proxy_read_timeout                  900;  
  }

}

配置文件创建完成后,回到工作目录/registry/programs/docker/,执行命令docker-compose up运行registry和nginx容器。

$ docker-compose up
Creating docker_registry_1
Creating docker_nginx_1
Attaching to docker_registry_1, docker_nginx_1
registry_1 | time="2018-09-05T02:39:44Z" level=warning msg="No HTTP secret provided - generated random secret. This may cause problems with uploads if multiple registries are behind a load-balancer. To provide a shared secret, fill in http.secret in the configuration file or set the REGISTRY_HTTP_SECRET environment variable." instance.id=4b05d29f-6f18-4238-a208-d7410cea3032 version=v2.1.1
registry_1 | time="2018-09-05T02:39:44Z" level=info msg="redis not configured" instance.id=4b05d29f-6f18-4238-a208-d7410cea3032 version=v2.1.1
registry_1 | time="2018-09-05T02:39:44Z" level=info msg="using inmemory blob descriptor cache" instance.id=4b05d29f-6f18-4238-a208-d7410cea3032 version=v2.1.1
registry_1 | time="2018-09-05T02:39:44Z" level=info msg="listening on [::]:5000" instance.id=4b05d29f-6f18-4238-a208-d7410cea3032 version=v2.1.1
registry_1 | time="2018-09-05T02:39:44Z" level=info msg="Starting upload purge in 2m0s" instance.id=4b05d29f-6f18-4238-a208-d7410cea3032 version=v2.1.1

执行docker-compose up后。注意是否有容器启动失败的消息,如果容器启动失败的消息,需要检查网络,是否能从dockerhub上pull image(需代理,或使用使用国内镜像,使用国内镜像需更改docker-compose.yml文件中image项)。也由可能粘贴配置文件错误,需仔细检查。

启动后也可以,另开一个xshell窗口并使用docker ps命令查看是否两个容器都正常运行。

$ docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                          NAMES
e106d58c07ee        nginx:1.9           "nginx -g 'daemon ..."   About an hour ago   Up 53 minutes       80/tcp, 0.0.0.0:443->443/tcp   docker_nginx_1
24de4f3517b2        registry:2.1.1      "/bin/registry /et..."   About an hour ago   Up 53 minutes       127.0.0.1:5000->5000/tcp       docker_registry_1

确定docker容器都正常运行后,用curl 命令验证功能是否正常运行。使得localhost:5000和localhost:443访问registry都应该返回{}。这时可以查看原来的xshell窗口中docker-compose的日志情况。

$ curl http://localhost:5000/v2/
{}
$ curl http://localhost:443/v2/
{}

回到原来的xshell窗口,使用ctrl-c退出docker-compose,继续后面的步骤。

为Nginx中添加用户名和密码

在/data/programs/docker/nginx目录下执行下面命令创建用户名和密码对,如果要创建多个用户名和密码对,则不是使用"-c"选项。

$ htpasswd -c registry.password docker 
然后修改Registry.conf文件,取消下面三行的注释。
auth_basic "registry.localhost";  
auth_basic_user_file /etc/nginx/conf.d/registry.password;  
add_header 'Docker-Distribution-Api-Version' 'registry/2.0' always;

再次执行docker-compose up运行registry,这时在第二个xshell窗口中使用localhost:5000端口访问得到的结果为”{}”,但是使用localhost:443访问将得到”401 Authorisation Required“的提示。加入用户名和密码验证才能得到与直接访问registry 5000端口相同的结果。

$ curl http://localhost:5000/v2/
{}
$ curl http://localhost:443/v2/
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.9.15</center>
</body>
</html>

加入SSL验证

如果你有经过认证机构认证的证书,则直接使用将证书放入nginx目录下即可。如果没有,则使用openssl创建自己的证书。

使用openssl创建自己的证书

进行/registry/programs/docker/nginx目录,生成一个新的root key。

# 创建一个RSA私钥
$ openssl genrsa -out devdockerCA.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
...................................+++
......................................................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)

# 生成根证书(一路回车即可)
$ openssl req -x509 -new -nodes -key devdockerCA.key -days 10000 -out devdockerCA.crt
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:
State or Province Name (full name) []:
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:
Email Address []:

# 为server创建一个key。(这个key将被nginx配置文件registry.con中ssl_certificate_key域引用)
$ openssl genrsa -out domain.key 2048
Generating RSA private key, 2048 bit long modulus
...................................................................................+++
...........................................................+++
e is 65537 (0x10001)

制作证书签名请求。

注意在执行下面命令时,命令会提示输入一些信息,”Common Name”一项一定要输入你的域名(官方说IP也行,但是也有IP不能加密的说法),其他项随便输入什么都可以。不要输入任何challenge密码,直接回车即可。

$ openssl req -new -key domain.key -out dev-docker-registry.com.csr
You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [XX]:
State or Province Name (full name) []:
Locality Name (eg, city) [Default City]:
Organization Name (eg, company) [Default Company Ltd]:
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:
Common Name (eg, your name or your server's hostname) []:ec2-18-221-193-240.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com
Email Address []:

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

签署认证请求

$ openssl x509 -req -in dev-docker-registry.com.csr -CA devdockerCA.crt -CAkey devdockerCA.key -CAcreateserial -out domain.crt -days 10000
Signature ok
subject=/C=XX/L=Default City/O=Default Company Ltd/CN=ec2-18-221-193-240.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com
Getting CA Private Key

配置nginx使用证书

修改registry.conf配置文件,取消如下三行的注释

ssl on;  
ssl_certificate /etc/nginx/conf.d/domain.crt;  
ssl_certificate_key /etc/nginx/conf.d/domain.key;

运行Registry

执行docker-compose up -d在后台运行Registry,并使用curl验证结果。这时使用localhost:5000端口仍然可以直接访问Registry,但是如果使用443端口通过nginx代理访问,因为已经加了SSL认证,所以使用http将返回“400 bad request”

$ curl http://localhost:5000/v2/
{}
$ curl http://localhost:443/v2/
<html>
<head><title>400 The plain HTTP request was sent to HTTPS port</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>400 Bad Request</h1></center>
<center>The plain HTTP request was sent to HTTPS port</center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.9.15</center>
</body>
</html>

应该使用https协议

$ curl https://localhost:443/v2/
curl: (60) Peer's certificate has an invalid signature.
More details here: http://curl.haxx.se/docs/sslcerts.html

curl performs SSL certificate verification by default, using a "bundle"
 of Certificate Authority (CA) public keys (CA certs). If the default
 bundle file isn't adequate, you can specify an alternate file
 using the --cacert option.
If this HTTPS server uses a certificate signed by a CA represented in
 the bundle, the certificate verification probably failed due to a
 problem with the certificate (it might be expired, or the name might
 not match the domain name in the URL).
If you'd like to turn off curl's verification of the certificate, use
 the -k (or --insecure) option.

由于是使用的未经任何认证机构认证的证书,并且还没有在本地应用自己生成的证书。所以此时会提示使用的是未经认证的证书,可以使用“-k”选项不进行验证。

$ curl -k https://localhost:443/v2/
<html>
<head><title>401 Authorization Required</title></head>
<body bgcolor="white">
<center><h1>401 Authorization Required</h1></center>
<hr><center>nginx/1.9.15</center>
</body>
</html>

Docker客户端使用Registry

添加证书

Centos 6/7 添加证书具体步骤如下

# 安装ca-certificates包
$ yum install ca-certificates
# 使能动态CA配置功能
$ update-ca-trust force-enable 
# 将镜像仓库的证书拷贝到Docker客户端主机的/etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
$ scp /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/devdockerCA.crt root@172.31.17.2:/etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
# 使新拷贝的证书生效
$ update-ca-trust extract
# 证书拷贝后,需要重启docker以保证docker能使用新的证书
$ service docker restart

登录远程镜像仓库

sudo docker login -u docker -p [\*\*\*] https://ec2-18-221-193-240.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com

制作要push到registry的镜像

注意需要提交到远程镜像仓库的镜像,需要用自定义的域名进行tag标记。例如:ec2-18-221-193-240.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com/image:1.0,可以通过下面的命令进行tag。

docker tag SOURCE_IMAGE[:TAG] TARGET_IMAGE[:TAG]

Docker pull/push image测试

sudo docker push ec2-18-221-193-240.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com/image:1.0